The hottest 2018 Nobel Prize in chemistry was anno

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2018 Nobel Prize in chemistry announced

2018 Nobel Prize in chemistry announced

October 12, 2018

recently, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences decided to award half of the 2018 Nobel Prize in chemistry to Frances h Arnold for realizing the directed evolution of enzymes; The other half was awarded to George P Smith and Gregory P winter for their realization of phage display technology of peptides and antibodies

American Francis Arnold was born in 1956. He is currently a professor of chemical engineering, bioengineering and biochemistry at the California Institute of technology. Arnold graduated from Princeton University in 1979, and then received his Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the University of California, Berkeley

Arnold's research areas include green chemistry and alternative energy, such as the development of highly active enzymes and microorganisms, and the conversion of renewable organisms into fuels and chemicals. She pioneered the method of directed evolution to create useful biological systems, including enzymes, metabolic pathways, gene regulatory circuits and organisms. In addition, she is also a joint holder of many patents

directed evolution is a method for protein engineering. It simulates the process of natural selection to make proteins or nucleic acids evolve in the way we want. The steps include mutagenesis (generation of variants), selection and amplification of genes. It can be carried out in living cells or in vitro (in solution or droplets). Directed evolution can be used not only as an alternative method to design and modify proteins for protein engineering, but also for the study of basic evolutionary principles in a controlled laboratory environment. The main functions of directed evolution are: improving the stability of proteins in high temperature or harsh solvents, improving the binding affinity of therapeutic antibodies and the activity of newly designed enzymes, and changing the substrate specificity of existing enzymes. This is also the most promising method to improve protein performance at present

It is worth mentioning that Arnold is the fifth woman to win the Nobel Prize in chemistry. The women who previously won the prize include Madame Curie's mother and daughter, British scientist Dorothy crowfoot Hodgkin who won the prize in 1964 and Israeli scientist ADA yonath who won the prize in 2009

George Smith, 77, is a professor of biology at Missouri Columbia University in the United States. He graduated from Harvard University with a Ph.D. in bacteriology and immunology

George Smith first invented phage display technology. At that time, he fused and expressed polypeptides on the PIII protein of filamentous phage, and successfully proved that polypeptides can be displayed on filamentous phage. A patent of George pieczenik also describes the construction of phage library. This technology was later further developed and optimized by Greg winter of molecular biology laboratory, John McCafferty, Lerner and Barbas of Scripps Institute and the team of German Cancer Research Center to display therapeutic proteins such as antibodies

Gregory winter, 67, is an authority in the field of protein engineering from Britain and graduated from Cambridge University. He was the deputy dean of Trinity College of Cambridge University, the deputy director of the molecular biology laboratory of the medical research association and the director of the Department of protein and nucleic acid chemistry. In 2004, winter was knighted for his contribution to molecular biology

one of winter's most important achievements is that he successfully developed "human" antibodies directly in test tubes without hybridoma and laboratory animal immunity. 1. The elimination of production capacity in real estate related industries will be very brutal. His new technology of antibody production in vitro paved the way for the development of new diagnostic procedures and treatment schemes, and several successful clinical trials have been started along these routes

phage display technology is a biotechnology that inserts the DNA sequence of foreign protein or polypeptide into the appropriate position of the structural gene of phage coat protein, so that the foreign gene is expressed with the expression of coat protein, and at the same time, the foreign protein is displayed on the surface of phage with the reassembly of phage

about the Nobel Prize in Chemistry:

from 1901 to 2017, the Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded 109 times. It is worth mentioning that Nobel himself, who established the award with his heritage and invented nitroglycerin explosive, is a famous Swedish chemist

in the past century, the research achievements of three new high-tech enterprises in physics, biology, biophysics and biochemistry have won Chemistry Prizes, so the Nobel Prize in chemistry is also nicknamed the "Nobel Prize in science". For example, in 2017, three biophysicists from Switzerland, the United States and the United Kingdom won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their contributions in the field of frozen electron microscopy

among the 177 winners, the only one who has won the Nobel Prize in chemistry twice is the British biochemist Frederick Sanger. In 1958, he won the first prize for opening up the field of protein sequencing and determining the amino acid sequence of insulin. Later, in 1980, the relative molecular weight of 2million and 3million won a second prize for inventing a method to determine the DNA sequence

according to the statistics of Nobel laureates, the average age of winners of the Nobel Prize in chemistry is 58 years old. So far, the youngest winner of the chemistry prize is the 35 year old French scientist jorio Curie. He and his wife, the daughter of Madame Curie, won the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1935 for the discovery of artificial radioactivity. In addition, Madame Curie also won the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1911 for the discovery of polonium and radium

so far, three Nobel Prize winners in chemistry have won more than one Nobel Prize. In addition to Sanger, who won the chemistry prize twice, and Madame Curie, who won the physics prize and the chemistry prize, the American chemist Linus Pauling pocketed the chemistry prize in 1954 and the peace prize in 1962. The award-winning achievement of the former is the research of chemical bonds, while the latter is to commend Pauline for actively opposing the use of scientific research achievements in war, especially against nuclear war, in the 1950s

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